Level |
Property |
How to determine base number |
1(a) |
One category of heir; no fixed share | Rule A: Number of heads |
1(b) |
One category of heir with a fixed share | Rule B: Denominator of the share |
1(c) |
Two categories of heirs; one has a fixed share | Rule C: Denominator of the share |
1(d) |
Two or more categories of heirs; at least two have fixed shares | Consider the denominators of the two shares Rule D: If they are the same (tamathul), choose one Rule E: If one is a multiple of the other (tadakhul), select the higher one Rule F: If they are parallel (tabayin), multiply them Rule G: If they converge (tawafuq), multiply one with the adjust (wafq) of the other |
‘Awl |
Sum of portions greater than base number | Rule H: Sum of portions |
2(a) |
One category of heir cannot share its portion | Consider number of heads and number of portions of the category. Rule I: If parallel (tabayin), multiply number of heads by base number (BN) to get new base number (NBN) Rule J: If they converge (tawafuq), multiply adjust (of number of heads) by BN to arrive at a NBN NOTE: There can be no tamathul or tadakhul in this level. |
2(b) | Two categories of heirs cannot share their portions ; while number of heads and corresponding number of portions of BOTH categories are tabayin | Consider number of heads of the two categories Rule K: If tamathul, select any and multiply by BN. Solution is NBN Rule L: If tadakhul, multiply the higher one by the BN to get NBN Rule M: If tabayin, multiply them, then multiply the answer by the BN. Outcome is NBN Rule N: If tawafuq, multiply wafq of one with the other, then multiply the result with the BN to arrive at a NBN |
2(c) | Two categories of heirs cannot share their portions; however, number of heads and number of portions of one category are tawafuq while number of heads and number of portions of the other category are tabayin | Consider the wafq (of number of heads) of the tawafuq category along with the number of heads of tabayin category Rule O: If tamathul, chooses any and multiply by BN to get NBN Rule P: If tadakhul, select the higher one and multiply it by the BN. Result is NBN Rule Q: If tabayin, multiply them, then fuether multiply the answer by the BN to arrive at a NBN Rule R: If tawafuq, multiply wafq of one by the other. Further multiply the result by BN to determine the NBN |
2(d) | Two categories of heirs cannot share their portions; but, number of heads and corresponding number of portions of BOTH categories are tawafuq | Consider the wafq of both categories Rule S: If tamathul, pick any and multiply by the BN to obtain a NBN Rule T: If tadakhul, multiply the base number by the higher one to generate a NBN Rule U: If tabayin, multiply the two wafqan, thereafter, multiply the answer by the BN to get a NBN Rule V: If tawafuq, multiply the wafq of one with the other. Subsequently, multiply the solution with the BN. Result is the NBN |
3 | Three or more categories of heirs cannot share their portions; number of heads and corresponding number of portions of each may either be tabayin or tawafuq | Consider number of heads of tabayin category and the wafq of tawafuq category Rule W: No precise procedure to determine base number, but suggestion is; pick any two categories that are SIMILAR. If they are tabayin, resolve them using the appropriate rule (K, L, M or N) to get a solution ‘X’. If they are tawafuq apply the suitable Level 2(d) rule: S, T, U or V, to obtain a solution ‘X’. Then consider ‘X’ along with the number of heads or wafq of the third category depending on the relationship of its number of heads and number of portions. If tabayin, use its number of heads but if tawaquf, use its wafq. Apply the correct rule. This new answer is ‘Y’. If there are more categories that cannot share their portions, follow the same procedure to resolve all of them. Finally multiply the last result by the BN to determine a NBN |
Quick links
- Introduction
- Male heirs
- Female heirs
- Non heirs
- Impediments to inheritance
- Exclusion
- Exclusion – Part 2
- Exclusion – Part 3
- Partial exclusion
- Note on difference of opinion
- Inheritance of children
- Inheritance of spouses
- Inheritance of parents
- Inheritance of grandparents
- Inheritance of siblings
- Residuaries (‘Asabah)
- Partial exclusion
- Inheritance arithmetic (“inherithmetic”)
- Procedure of solving inheritance problems
- Levels of inheritance problems (Level one)
- Level one – continued
- Lowest Common Multiple (LCM)
- Highest Common Factor (HCF)
- Prime numbers
- Increment of base number (‘Awl)
- Level two – Part 1
- Level two – Part 2
- Level two – Part 3
- Level two – Part 4
- Level three
- Inheritance of grandfather along with siblings
- Inheritance of grandfather along with siblings in the presence of other heirs
- Special cases
- YOU ARE HERE: Summary of rules
- Further reading
- Solutions to exercises
Your Questions, Our Answers
We have received a number of emails from those who visited this website or downloaded and read INHERITANCE IN ISLAM. Almost all of them were questions on either aspects of inheritance not covered in the book or clarifications needed regarding specific cases. Hence, we thought it wise to reproduce the emails so that others may benefit as well. As always, we welcome suggestions, criticisms and of course, more questions!